Canada’s recent criticism of the treatment of women’s rights activists in Saudi Arabia has sparked a diplomatic spat with Riyadh.
Saudi Arabia has frozen all trade, expelled Canada’s ambassador and ordered its citizens studying in Canada to leave.
Canada has responded by saying it “will continue to advocate for human rights”.
But the move could jeopardise a controversial C$15b ($11.5b, £9b) arms deal between the two countries.
Why the falling out?
On Friday, the Canadian government sent out a tweet condemning the arrests of women’s rights activists, including Samar Badawi, the sister of jailed dissident Raif Badawi.
Ms Badawi is known for challenging Saudi Arabia’s male guardianship system. She was given the US International Women of Courage Award in 2012.
Her brother Mr Badawi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 1,000 lashes for “insulting Islam” online back in 2014. His wife, Ensaf Haidar, lives in Canada and recently became a Canadian citizen.
Saudi’s foreign ministry called the statement “a major, unacceptable affront to the kingdom’s laws and judicial process”.
On Monday, Saudi’s foreign ministry recalled its ambassador to Canada for consultations and declared the Canadian ambassador persona non grata, giving him 24 hours to leave.
The government also froze all new trade with Canada, and ordered approximately 16,000 Saudi students studying abroad in Canada to return home or complete their study in other countries.
The country’s state airline also cancelled all direct flights to Toronto.
In response, Canada’s foreign affairs minister Chrystia Freeland said the government will not back down.
“I will say Canada is very comfortable with our position. We are always going to speak up for human rights; we’re always going to speak up for women’s rights; and that is not going to change,” she told reporters in Vancouver on Monday.
“Canadians expect our foreign policy to be driven by and to embody Canadian values, and that is how we intend to continue our foreign policy.”
Why were the women’s rights activists arrested in the first place?
The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights estimates that at least 15 human rights defenders and women’s rights activists critical of the Saudi government had been arrested or detained arbitrarily since 15 May.
Among those reportedly still being held, in addition to Badawai, are Hatoon al-Fassi, a leading voice for women’s participation in civil life; human rights defender Khaled al-Omair; women’s rights activists Loujain al-Hathloul, Eman al-Nafjan, Aziza al-Yousef, Nouf Abdulaziz and Mayaa al-Zahrani; Ms Hathloul’s 80-year-old lawyer, Ibrahim al-Modaimeegh; and the activist Abdulaziz Meshaal.
Several of those detained have been accused of serious crimes, including “suspicious contact with foreign parties”, and could face up to 20 years in prison.
The arrests appear to be at odds with the reforms promised by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who lifted the ban on women drivers in June and allowed movie theatres to open across the country for the first time in April.
But the prince, who took power in June 2017, has also been responsible for a number of high-profile crackdowns on people that could present a challenge to his authority, including arrests of clerics, intellectuals, businessmen and other members of the royal family.
What has the relationship between Saudi Arabia and Canada been like in the past?
Canada’s relationship with Saudi Arabia has been cordial in the past, which has sometimes stoked controversy at home.
In 2014, the Conservative government approved a C$15b arms deal that would allow a Canadian company to sell military vehicles to the Saudi government. Permits for the deal were subsequently approved by Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s government in 2016.
That caused significant backlash by those concerned about Saudi Arabia’s human rights record.
Last March, Mr Trudeau was defending the deal in the House of Commons, arguing that “the exports are consistent with our foreign and defence policies, including human rights”.
Saudi Arabia’s trade freeze now throws that deal into doubt.